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Old 05-06-14, 13:17   #1
 
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Update PhOtOs-800 Babies in Mass Grave-Nuns' Investigated

Mass Septic Tank Grave 'Containing the Skeletons of 800 Babies' at Site of Irish Home for Unmarried Mothers

  • Hundreds of babies and toddlers believed to be buried in Tuam, Co Galway
  • The site lies next to a former home for single mothers and their children
  • The children's home was run by Bon Secours nuns between 1925 and 1961
  • Children were malnourished and neglected, which caused many of deaths
  • They also died of TB, pneumonia, measles, convulsions and gastroenteritis
  • Relative of one missing child has filed complaint with local police, the gardai
By Daily Mail UK, 5 June 2014


The bodies of nearly 800 babies are believed to have been interred in a concrete tank beside a former home for unmarried mothers.
The dead babies are thought to have been secretly buried beside a home for single mothers and their children in County Galway, Ireland, over a period of 36 years.


It is suspected that 796 children were interred on unconsecrated ground without headstones or coffins next to the home run by the Bon Secours nuns in Tuam between 1925 and 1961.
Newly unearthed reports show that they suffered malnutrition and neglect, which caused the deaths of many, while others died of measles, convulsions, TB, gastroenteritis and pneumonia.




The bodies of 796 babies and children are believed to lie next to the former children's home at Tuam, Co. Galway


The babies were usually buried in a plain shroud without a coffin in a plot that had housed a water tank attached to the workhouse that preceded the mother and child home.

No memorial was erected to the dead children and the grave was left unmarked.

The site is now surrounded by a housing estate. But a missing persons' report just filed to Irish police, gardai, means that the burial site may now be excavated.

A relative of one boy who lived there, William Joseph Dolan, has made a formal complaint to gardai after she failed to find his death certificate, despite records in the home stating that he had died.

A source close to the investigation said: 'No one knows the total number of babies in the grave.

There are 796 death records but they are only the ones we know of.

'God knows who else is in the grave. It's been lying there for years and no one knows the full extent or total of bodies down there.'

The existence of the grave was uncovered by local woman Catherine Corless, who compiled the records of 796 babies who died at the home. She has established a group called the Children's Home Graveyard Committee to erect a memorial.

She said: 'People who had relations there are the most interested. They are delighted something is being done.




Horror: The scandal of the babies in the mass grave was discovered by local historian, Catherine Corless


'When I was doing the research, someone mentioned there was a graveyard there for babies but I found out there was more to it than that.'

With the help of the Births and Deaths Registrar in Galway, Mrs Corless researched all children whose place of death was marked 'Children's Home, Tuam'. Galway County Council has all the cemetery books for Mayo and Galway, and with the help of the archivist there, Mrs Corless cross-checked the grave records.

She said: 'There was just one child who was buried in a family plot in the graveyard in Tuam. That's how I am certain there are 796 children in the mass grave. These girls were run out of their family home and never taken back, so why would they take the babies back to bury them, either?'



Bridget Dolan: Her two sons were placed in the Mother and Baby home at Tuam and both are recorded as having died there


The records state that a young single mother called Bridget Dolan from Clonfert, Co Galway, gave birth to two boys who were placed in the home.

John Desmond Dolan was born on 22 February 1946 weighing 8lb 9oz. His birth was recorded as 'normal' but he died from measles on 11 June 1947.

His brother, William Joseph Dolan, was born on 21 May 1950 and was said to have died the following year, but there is no death certificate for William.

His relative, who asked not to be named, said: 'I just want to know what happened to him. He may have passed on, yet there is no death certificate. I believe he might have been fostered out, and then moved to the US.

'He could still be alive, or he's with his brother in the grave. I want to find out.'

A local health board inspection report carried out in 1944 reveals the conditions the children and their mothers lived in.

It reveals that in April that year, 271 children were listed as living there with 61 single mothers, a total of 333 - way over its capacity of 243.

One 13-month-old boy was described as a 'miserable, emaciated child with voracious appetite and no control over bodily functions and probably mentally defective'.

In the same room was a 'delicate' ten-month-old baby who was a 'child of itinerants', while one five-year-old child was described as having 'hands growing near shoulders'.

Another 31 infants in the same room were described as 'poor babies, emaciated and not thriving'.

The majority were aged between three weeks and 13 months and were 'fragile, pot-bellied and emaciated'.

The oldest child who died there was Sheila Tuohy, aged nine, in 1934. One of the youngest was Thomas Duffy, aged two days.

Teresa Kelly, the chairman of the Children's Home Graveyard Committee, said an excavation was long overdue.

'It's an awful story,' she said. 'It's a mass grave. Many of the babies were malnourished. We want to make sure those children's identities are acknowledged. They had names, they were human beings, not animals.'

The grave was discovered in the 1970s by 12-year-old friends, Barry Sweeney and Francis Hopkins.

Mr Sweeney said: 'It was a concrete slab and we used to play there but there was always something hollow underneath it so we decided to bust it open and it was full to the brim of skeletons.

'The priest came over and blessed it. I don't know what they did with it after that. You could see all the skulls.'

The home, which closed in 1961, was one of several such establishments - Catholic and Protestant - for 'fallen women' across Ireland which had astonishingly high infant mortality rates.

Sean Ross Abbey in Tipperary was another: in the first year after it opened in 1930, 60 babies died out of a total of 120. Those who survived, meanwhile, were often sold abroad to childless couples.

At a memorial service at the site of the home yesterday, it emerged that women who gave birth at Sean Ross and other homes plan to file missing persons reports in a bid to track down their children.



Dark secrets: Children at the tea room at Sean Ross Abbey in Tipperary eat under the stern gaze of a nun




The nursery at Sean Ross: The home, which opened in 1930, had an astonishingly high infant mortality rate



Life at the home: Babies and children enjoy the sunshine outside the children's home at Sean Ross Abbey


Philomena Lee, whose three-year-old son, Anthony, was handed over by nuns at Sean Ross to an American family 60 years ago, was among those at the memorial service.
She said: 'It's not about getting angry, it's about doing what's right and it's about opening all the files.'

And Mrs Lee, whose story was made into the Oscar-nominated film, Philomena, added:

'Maybe the State never thought the mass graves would be found out about. They seem to be wanting to push it under the carpet, but it needs to be told.'
She said: 'I don't know how many bodies of mothers and children are in graves all over the country,
'I'm shocked at the latest news of the mass grave [at Tuam] - it's appalling and shouldn't be hidden.'




Children in the playroom at Sean Ross Abbey: Such homes for 'fallen women' and their children existed across Ireland





Cribs and playpens: The homes were run by nuns, both from the Roman Catholic and Protestant churches



The mothers of children given up for adoption by nuns are now calling for more information about their babies


'ABSOLUTELY FREEZING AND FULL OF YOUNG KIDS RUNNING AROUND'

Quote:
An 85-year-old woman who survived the children's home in Tuam has told of the miserable conditions at the home, where she was placed in 1932.
The woman, who gave her name only as Mary, and now lives in the west of Ireland, spent four years in the home before being placed with a foster family.

She said: 'I remember going into the home when I was about four. There was a massive hall in it and it was full of young kids running round and they were dirty and cold.

'There were well over 100 children in there and there were three or four nuns who minded us.

'The building was very old and we were let out the odd time, but at night the place was absolutely freezing with big stone walls.

'When we were eating it was in this big long hall and they gave us all this soup out of a big pot, which I remember very well.
It was rotten to taste, but it was better than starving.'

Mary recalled that the children were 'rarely washed', and often wore the same clothes for weeks at a time.

She said: 'We were filthy dirty. I remember one time when I soiled myself, the nuns ducked me down into a big cold bath and I never liked nuns after that.'
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Old 08-06-14, 15:20   #2
 
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Update Re: PhOtOs-800 Babies in Mass Grave-Nuns' Investigated

'I Thought I'd Seen it all. Then I Found Nuns' Secret Grave for 800 Babies':
By Philomena writer MARTIN SIXSMITH


  • Catholic Church took 60,000 babies for adoption in the 1950s and 1960s,
  • Many sent to America in return for large payments disguised as 'donations'
  • Martin wrote about one case in his book Philomena, later made into a film
  • News of the mass graves at Tuam finally made the newspapers last week
  • Religious community's site had primitive conditions with babies neglected
  • Infection and disease ran unchecked; measles and dysentery killed hundreds
  • Two locals, Catherine Corless and Teresa Kelly, set out to uncover the truth
  • Catherine calculated nearly 800 babies were buried beneath the estate
By Martin Sixsmith, Daily Mail UK, 8 June 2014

Quote:

In nearly two decades as a foreign correspondent, I covered stories of mass graves in far-flung locations in Eastern Europe and Russia. The thought of them has remained lodged in my memory.
But never did I expect to be covering a mass grave from modern times on my own doorstep; I thought Western and Northern Europe was immune from such horrors.

Yet that is exactly what I came across in January this year in the small Irish town of Tuam in County Galway, an ugly place with its rundown streets and council estates.


SQUALID:
Children in the 'care' of the Sisters of Bon Secours in 1924


On a grey, rainy afternoon, I was taken to a patch of land in the centre of one such estate. Surrounded by houses built in the 1970s, on the edge of a scruffy playground, I found a plaster statue of the Madonna on a pile of stones, incongruously sheltered by an old enamel bathtub. Beneath it were the bodies of nearly 800 babies.

The remains of a forbidding 8ft wall nearby were a clue to the place's history. Until 1961 this had been the site of a Catholic religious community run by the Sisters of Bon Secours.

They had bought the workhouse in the 1920s and converted it into a home for unmarried mothers. For the next 36 years, the nuns took in thousands of women. In those days, sex outside marriage was proclaimed a mortal sin.

The Church said the girls were 'fallen women' and degenerates. Their crime had to be hidden, their babies delivered in secret behind high walls, and their children taken away.

News of the mass graves at Tuam finally made the newspapers last week, but I had heard of the site and visited the shrine five months ago while researching a BBC TV documentary about the estimated 60,000 babies that the Church took for adoption in the 1950s and 1960s, many of them sent to America in return for large payments disguised as 'donations'.

I had written about one such case in my book Philomena, later made into a film starring Judi Dench.


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The hundreds of letters I received from mothers and children forcibly separated by the nuns, and still seeking each other even now, made me painfully aware of the full human tragedy behind Ireland's mother and baby homes. But Tuam had other, even darker secrets.




The site where the bodies of nearly 800 babies lies was the site of a Catholic religious community
run by the Sisters of Bon Secours until 1961


I talked to local residents and met John, now in his 80s and one of the first to move into the estate in October 1972, who told me how children made a grim discovery on the grassy area. He said: 'Not too long after we came here they were playing football and they saw something they thought was a ball or something. They kicked it around, but when we looked at it we saw it was a child's skull.'

Worse was to follow. 'The local lads used to go fishing in the river', John said. 'They needed to dig for worms and one day they lifted up some old slabs that had been lying since before the estate was built...'

What the boys found was horrific. The slabs concealed the entrance to a Victorian septic tank built for the workhouse. Its original function had ceased in the 1930s when mains sewerage came, but the nuns had seemingly put it to a new and grisly use.

'We children burst open the slab...the tank was full of skeletons'

Barry Sweeney, one of the boys there that day, says: 'It was a concrete slab, but there was something hollow underneath it, so we decided to bust it open and it was full to the brim with skeletons. The priest came over and blessed it. I had nightmares over it.'

Like all the mother and baby homes run by the Church, conditions in Tuam had been primitive. The girls were denied basic medical care and refused painkillers for even the most difficult birth because the pain was 'God's punishment for your sin'.

Their babies were neglected, crowded into communal nurseries where infection and disease ran unchecked. The result was a shamefully high death rate, with measles and dysentery killing hundreds.
Infant mortality was often five or six times worse in the Church's homes than in the rest of Ireland, and judging by accounts of what went on there it is hardly surprising.


'Nellie', a former inmate in Tuam, spoke to me on condition that I would not use her real name.


Martin wrote the book Philomena, later made into a film



'I came in pregnant and was put to work in the nursery,' she said. 'It was awful. There was no medicine and the babies were always getting sick. When one of them caught something, they would all get it and nuns did nothing about it. The worst was the green diarrhoea. It just poured out of the little things. It was so bad that you couldn't even put nappies on them. They just lay there in it.'
Nellie's daughter survived, but many didn't. 'There was nothing you could do. Their diet was terrible, there was overcrowding and disease, and no doctor to call on. There were babies dying every day.' The Tuam home was demolished in 1972 and the nuns departed without any mention of the dead babies.

But rumours continued to circulate until two local people, Catherine Corless and Teresa Kelly, set out to uncover the truth. 'We all knew about the "home babies”,' Catherine told me. 'But the place was behind 8ft walls and nobody was allowed in.'
Catherine and Teresa consulted old maps and documents, gathering whatever information they could. The stories about the sewage tank began to make sense. 'Some locals do remember,' she told me, 'that grave diggers would be seen late at night bringing out children and putting them in there. They were without coffins, just wrapped in white shrouds.'

Catherine went to the records office in Galway. 'There was a nice girl there. I'm not sure she was supposed to, but she dug out the old records of all the children who died, with their ages and what they died of...'

By collating the data, Catherine calculated that nearly 800 babies were buried beneath the housing estate. 'I was utterly amazed when I realised that I had the names of 796 babies. The causes of death were measles or septicaemia, abscesses, convulsions, tuberculosis or pneumonia; lots were aged three to six months, and then quite a lot of one and two-year-olds. It's heart-breaking reading through all the names.'



The scandal of the babies in the mass grave was discovered by local historian, Catherine Corless


An inspection report from 1944 reveals the sorry state of many of the 333 babies then at Tuam. Most, aged between three weeks and 13 months, are described as 'fragile, pot-bellied and emaciated', 31 are listed as 'poor babies, emaciated and not thriving'. There is a 'miserable, emaciated child with voracious appetite and no control over bodily functions'; a 'delicate' ten-month-old 'child of itinerants', and a five-year-old with its 'hands growing near its shoulders'.

A nine-month-old is described as 'emaciated with flesh hanging loosely on limbs', and the child's mother is said to be 'not normal'.

'Unnamed, unrecognised children lie in mass graves across Ireland'

The report concludes that the mortality rate was 'high', with 300 deaths between 1943 and 1946. With so many babies perishing, the nuns had used the septic tank as a convenient depository, turning it into a mass grave. Catherine Corless believes that what is now the playground also conceals buried remains.

A Church that sets such store by the sanctity of human life and its opposition to abortion showed very little respect for the young souls in its care, and that rankles with Teresa Kelly.

'The nuns left without doing justice to those children', she says. 'They walked away and left the babies there. I don't understand how anyone could just cover over all that and forget that all that happened.'

When the story of the grave began to emerge, a local couple took it on themselves to keep the burial site tidy; it was they who put up the makeshift shrine with its bathtub. But Teresa says she won't rest until a proper memorial is erected. 'We want to put those children's names on a plaque and get them up on the wall. They deserve to have a name, the day they were born, the day they died. Their mothers don't know where they're buried. People will be looking; they deserve to know.'

Now people are looking. A relative of a child born in Tuam has made a formal complaint to the Irish police that could trigger exhumations at the site. William Joseph Dolan was born on May 21, 1950, to a young single mother called Bridget Dolan. The institution's records carry the scribbled word 'died', but no further information. Bridget reportedly told her family that William had been sent for adoption in America. His relative, who does not wish to be identified, says: 'I just want to know what happened to him. There is no death certificate. He could still be alive or he's in the grave.'




Steve Coogan as Martin Sixsmith with Judi Dench in the film Philomena




Philomena starred Judi Dench and Steve Coogan





Pressure is growing for a proper investigation. The Irish Minister for Children, Charlie Flanagan, has called the revelations about Tuam and other mother and baby homes 'deeply disturbing' and 'a shocking reminder of a darker past'.

The Dolan case may force the government to take action, but it is unlikely Tuam is an isolated case.

Catherine Corless says: 'I know there are other mass graves and there are people wanting to recognise them. There are mass graves all over Ireland. Unrecognised, unnamed children. Here in Tuam we hope to have some justice for them.'
Sadly, from my own experience working on Philomena, I know justice is not easy to come by.

Church and state have repeatedly failed to help mothers whose children were sent for adoption in the 1950s and 1960s; some accuse them of operating a 'deny until they die' policy of stonewalling.

And there are similar signs of buck-passing in this case. The Archbishop of Tuam, Michael Neary, said he is 'greatly shocked' by the news, but he is quick to blame others.

'As the diocese did not have any involvement in running the home, we do not have any material relating to it. There exists a clear moral imperative on the Bon Secours Sisters to act upon their responsibilities.'

But when Catherine Corless approached the Sisters, they told her: 'We haven't got one single record. We gave everything over to the county council and then it went to the health board, so we have absolutely nothing on the home.'

When I phoned a spokesman for the Bon Secours Sisters, she was charming, but said that the nuns were old now; they aren't able to talk to the media and there is really nothing they can do. 'Through the passage of time, the sisters who would have served at the home are now deceased.

Unfortunately, I cannot take the matter any further.'
It is a statement that puts me in mind of the final scene of the film Philomena when Steve Coogan, playing a semi-fictional version of me and furious at being fobbed off by the Church, storms into a convent and threatens to throw the old nun who ran the mother and baby home 'out of that f***ing wheelchair!' Melodramatic perhaps, but sometimes that's what it takes.

Philomena, by Martin Sixsmith, is published by Pan Macmillan, priced £7.99. The film is out on DVD.


Trailers for Philomena starring Judi Dench and Steve Coogan:








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Old 08-06-14, 15:48   #3
 
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Update Re: PhOtOs-800 Babies in Mass Grave-Nuns' Investigated

'A Miserable, Emaciated Child with a Voracious Appetite and No Control over His Bodily Functions':
Documents which Reveal the Tragic Story of a Short Life at St Mary's

  • 16-month-old John Desmond Dolan died in St Mary's Mother and Baby Home on June 11, 1947
  • He was described as being a 'congenital idiot' on his death certificate
By Daily Mail UK, 8 June 2014


It is the harrowing certificate that shows how 16-month-old John Desmond Dolan was described as being a ‘congenital idiot’ at the time of his death in St Mary’s Mother and Baby home.

John is one of the 796 children whose remains were left in a mass grave on the grounds of St Mary’s, which was run by the Sisters of Bon Secours.

Documents given to the Irish Mail on Sunday by the boy’s sister reveal how he had a healthy birth and weighed 8lbs 9oz when he was born at the Tuam home on February 22, 1946.




Harrowing: The death certificate of 16-month-old John Desmond Dolan, who died in 1947

His mother Bridget Dolan, a farmer's daughter from Clonfert, Co. Galway, gave birth to him in the presence of a woman known as Bina Rabbitte.

There are no details given of his father. Records from the home show how a health inspection was carried out in April 1947 by a man known as Mr Humphreys.




Tragic: Bridget Dolan, whose sons died at the mother and baby home


Despite being born a healthy baby, a year later John was described as a 'miserable emaciated child with a voracious appetite and no control over his bodily functions'.

Doctors referred to John as 'probably mental defective'.


That year there was an outbreak of measles in the home, which John contracted.

He died on June 11, 1947. On his death certificate it showed how Ms Rabbitte was again present at the time of John's death.

It is understood she had been born in the home and remained on, assisting the nuns with the children.

John's cause of death was recorded as 'congential idiot and measles'.

His sister said: 'He was born healthy and yet he died less than two years later. What is a congenital idiot? How could anyone call a child that?

'He is on that death list and it’s terrible what happened to him. To think that report says he was a miserable 16-month-old is heartbreaking.'

In the home, mothers looked after their own children. John’s mother Bridget was discharged from the home in the February before her son died after the nuns found her a job as a housekeeper.

Three years later she fell pregnant again and her second child, William Joseph, who was born at Galway University Hospital on May 21, 1950.

He was born a healthy baby and there are no records of his having any illnesses. He
is registered in the Tuam home as having died on February 3, 1951, yet there are no notes
regarding cause of death and no records of his death among the national death registrations.

His sister has reported William Joseph missing to gardaí: 'I don't know where he is. I heard talk through his family that he was sent to America,' she said.

And on Friday, the MoS has learned, the family made a formal requested to gardai that they find, exhume and return the body of John for a proper burial.




John is one of the 796 children whose remains were left in a mass grave on the grounds of St Mary's

.
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