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Unhappy Stephen Hawking Has Died After 55 Years of Suffering of Motor Neurone Disease

Professor Stephen Hawking Dies Peacefully aged 76 at His Cambridge UK Home - 55 Years After The Scientist was Diagnosed with Motor Neurone Disease and Given Just Two Years to Live

  • Physicist Professor Stephen Hawking died this morning at his Cambridge home
  • His children have praised his 'courage and persistence' that inspired millions
  • Scientist diagnosed with motor neurone disease in 1963 and given 2 years to live
  • Illness was slower than expected and he married twice and had three children
  • Wrote 15 books and starred in The Simpsons, The Big Bang Theory and Star Trek
  • His 1988 book A Brief History of Time sold more than ten million copies since
  • Hawking married Jane Wilde in 1965 and had children Robert, Lucy and Tim
  • They divorced in 1991 and he married his former nurse Elaine Mason in 1994


Daily Mail UK, 14 March 2018.





Professor Stephen Hawking (pictured in 2015) has died at the age of 76 at home in Cambridge more than 50 years after being diagnosed with motor neurone disease



The world's most celebrated scientist Professor Stephen Hawking has died at the age of 76 - more than 50 years after he was given just two years to live.


The eminent theoretical physicist who passed away peacefully at his home in Cambridge this morning after a long battle with motor neurone disease, his family has revealed.

His children, Lucy, Robert and Tim said in a statement:

'We are deeply saddened that our beloved father passed away today. He was a great scientist and an extraordinary man whose work and legacy will live on for many years.
'He once said,

"It would not be much of a universe if it wasn't home to the people you love." ...

We will miss him forever'.

They also praised their father's 'courage and persistence' that inspired people from across the world, and a recent poll voted him the 25th greatest Briton of all time.

Professor Hawking was diagnosed with motor neurone disease in 1963 when he was 21 and he defied medical experts who said he would be dead within two years.





Jane and Stephen in the mis-1960s, shortly after his diagnosis with motor neurone disease and being given two years to live


In the following 55 years he became the world's most famous scientist since Albert Einstein for his work exploring the mysteries of space, time and black holes despite being wheelchair-bound and only able to communicate using a computer and his famous voice synthesizer.

His most famous book 'A Brief History of Time' became an international bestseller with more than 10million copies sold - although the physicist joked himself that many who owned it never finished it and more struggled to understand its complexity.

The Cambridge-based scientist, who married twice, embraced popular culture appearing in The Simpsons, The Big Bang Theory, Star Trek and was immortalised in the Oscar-winning biopic The Theory of Everything, where he was played by Eddie Redmayne.

He said he embraced popular culture because he wanted to make science more mainstream and encourage the world to 'look up at the stars and not down at your feet'.

Hawking's most famous works included a mathematical model for Albert Einstein's General Theory of Relativity and the nature of the universe such as The Big Bang and Black Holes.

He wrote or co-wrote 15 books overall.

Dr Hawking was born on January 8, 1942 in Oxford, England.

His family had moved to Oxford from north London to escape the threat of World War II rockets.

When he was 8, they moved St. Albans, a town about 20 miles north of the capital, where he would attend St Albans School and later University College, Oxford where his father attended.

His prodigious talent and unorthodox study methods meant he used few books and made no notes but could still solve problems like no other students.

He wanted to study mathematics but the subject was not available at the college so he chose physics instead.

In 1962, he went to the University of Cambridge's Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics to conduct research in cosmology.

In 1965, he received his PhD with his thesis 'Properties of Expanding Universes' and would soon publish his first academic book 'The Large Scale Structure of Space-Time'.

At the age of 21, Hawking was diagnosed with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a nerve system disease that weakens muscles and impacts physical function.

But he continued his scientific work, appeared on television and married for a second time.

As one of Isaac Newton's successors as Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at Cambridge University, Hawking was involved in the search for the great goal of physics a 'unified theory.'

Such a theory would resolve the contradictions between Einstein's General Theory of Relativity, which describes the laws of gravity that govern the motion of large objects like planets, and the Theory of Quantum Mechanics, which deals with the world of subatomic particles.

For Hawking, the search was almost a religious quest he said finding a 'theory of everything' would allow mankind to 'know the mind of God.'

He wrote in 'A Brief History of Time' that 'a complete, consistent unified theory is only the first step: our goal is a complete understanding of the events around us, and of our own existence.'

In later years, though, he suggested a unified theory might not exist.

He followed up in the book in 2001 with the more accessible sequel, 'The Universe in a Nutshell,' updating readers on concepts like super gravity, naked singularities and the possibility of an 11-dimensional universe.

Hawking said belief in a God who intervenes in the universe 'to make sure the good guys win or get rewarded in the next life' was wishful thinking.

'But one can't help asking the question: Why does the universe exist?' he said in 1991. 'I don't know an operational way to give the question or the answer, if there is one, a meaning. But it bothers me.'

The combination of his best-selling book and his almost total disability for a while he could use a few fingers, later he could only tighten the muscles on his face made him one of science's most recognizable faces.

He made cameo television appearances in 'The Simpsons' and 'Star Trek' and counted among his fans U2 guitarist The Edge, who attended a January 2002 celebration of Hawking's 60th birthday.

His early life was chronicled in the 2014 film 'The Theory of Everything,' with Eddie Redmayne winning the best actor Academy Award for his portrayal of the scientist. The film focused still more attention on Hawking's remarkable achievements.

Some colleagues credited that celebrity with generating new enthusiasm for science.

His achievements and his longevity helped prove to many that even the most severe disabilities need not stop patients from living.

Richard Green, of the Motor Neurone Disease Association said Hawking met the classic definition of the disease, as 'the perfect mind trapped in an imperfect body.' He said Hawking had been an inspiration to people with the disease for many years.

Although it could take him minutes to compose answers to even simple questions Hawking said the disability did not impair his work.

It certainly did little to dampen his ambition to physically experience space himself: Hawking savored small bursts of weightlessness in 2007 when he was flown aboard a jet that made repeated dives to simulate zero-gravity.

Hawking had hoped to leave Earth's atmosphere altogether someday, a trip he often recommended to the rest of the planet's inhabitants.

'In the long run the human race should not have all its eggs in one basket, or on one planet,' Hawking said in 2008. 'I just hope we can avoid dropping the basket until then.'

Hawking first earned prominence for his theoretical work on black holes. Disproving the belief that black holes are so dense that nothing could escape their gravitational pull, he showed that black holes leak a tiny bit of light and other types of radiation, now known as 'Hawking radiation.'

'It came as a complete surprise,' said Gary Horowitz, a theoretical physicist at the University of California, Santa Barbara. 'It really was quite revolutionary.'

Horowitz said the find helped move scientists one step closer to cracking the unified theory.

Hawking's other major scientific contribution was to cosmology, the study of the universe's origin and evolution. Working with Jim Hartle of the University of California, Santa Barbara, Hawking proposed in 1983 that space and time might have no beginning and no end.

'Asking what happens before the Big Bang is like asking for a point one mile north of the North Pole,' he said.

Prof Hawking's crowning achievement was his prediction in the 1970s that black holes can emit energy, despite the classical view that nothing - not even light - can escape their gravity.

Hawking Radiation, based on mathematical concepts arising from quantum mechanics, the branch of science that deals with the weird world of sub-atomic particles, eventually causes black holes to 'evaporate' and vanish, according to the theory.

Had the existence of Hawking Radiation been proved by astronomers or physicists, it would almost certainly have earned Prof Hawking a Nobel Prize. As it turned out, the greatest scientific accolade eluded him until the time of this death.

Born in Oxford on January 8 1942 - 300 years after the death of astronomer Galileo Galilei - Prof Hawking grew up in St Albans.

He had a difficult time at the local public school and was persecuted as a 'swot' who was more interested in jazz, classical music and debating than sport and pop.

Although not top of the class, he was good at maths and 'chaotically enthusiastic in chemistry'.

As an undergraduate at Oxford, the young Hawking was so good at physics that he got through with little effort.

In the 1980s, Prof Hawking and Professor Jim Hartle, from the University of California at Santa Barbara, proposed a model of the universe which had no boundaries in space or time.

The concept was described in his best-selling popular science book A Brief History Of Time, published in 1988, which sold 25 million copies worldwide.

As well as razor sharp intellect, Prof Hawking also possessed an almost child-like sense of fun, which helped to endear him to members of the public.

He booked a seat on Sir Richard Branson's Virgin Galactic sub-orbital space plane and rehearsed for the trip by floating inside a steep-diving Nasa aircraft - dubbed the 'vomit comet' - used to simulate weightlessness.

On one wall of his office at Cambridge University was a clock depicting Homer Simpson, whose theory of a 'doughnut-shaped universe' he threatened to steal in an episode of the cartoon show. He is said to have glared at the clock whenever a visitor was late.

From 1979 to 2009 he was Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the university - a post once held by Sir Isaac Newton. He went on to become director of research in the university's Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics.

Upheaval in his personal life also hit the headlines, and in February 1990 he left Jane, his wife of 25 years, to set up home with one of his nurses, Elaine Mason. The couple married in September 1995 but divorced in 2006.

Throughout his career Prof Hawking was showered with honorary degrees, medals, awards and prizes, and in 1982 he was made a CBE.

But he also ruffled a few feathers within the scientific establishment with far-fetched statements about the existence of extraterrestrials, time travel, and the creation of humans through genetic engineering.

He has also predicted the end of humanity, due to global warming, a new killer virus, or the impact of a large comet.

In 2015 he teamed up with Russian billionaire Yuri Milner who has launched a series of projects aimed at finding evidence of alien life.

The decade-long Breakthrough Listen initiative aims to step up the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (Seti) by listening out for alien signals with more sensitivity than ever before.

The even bolder Starshot Initiative, announced in 2016, envisages sending tiny light-propelled robot space craft on a 20-year voyage to the Alpha Centauri star system.

Meanwhile Prof Hawking's 'serious' work continued, focusing on the thorny question of what happens to all the information that disappears into a black hole. One of the fundamental tenets of physics is that information data can never be completely erased from the universe.

A paper co-authored by Prof Hawking and published online in Physical Review Letters in June 2016 suggests that even after a black hole has evaporated, the information it consumed during its life remains in a fuzzy 'halo' - but not necessarily in the proper order.

Prof Hawking outlined his theories about black holes in a series of Reith Lectures broadcast on BBC Radio 4 in January and February 2016.

In 2004, he announced that he had revised his previous view that objects sucked into black holes simply disappeared, perhaps to enter an alternate universe. Instead, he said he believed objects could be spit out of black holes in a mangled form.

That new theory capped his three-decade struggle to explain a paradox in scientific thinking: How can objects really 'disappear' inside a black hole and leave no trace, as he long believed, when subatomic theory says matter can be transformed but never fully destroyed?

Hawking was born Jan. 8, 1942, in Oxford, and grew up in London and St. Albans, northwest of the capital. In 1959, he entered Oxford University and then went on to graduate work at Cambridge.

Signs of illness appeared in his first year of graduate school, and he was diagnosed with ALS, also known as Lou Gehrig's disease after the New York Yankee star who died of it. The disease usually kills within three to five years.

According to John Boslough, author of 'Stephen Hawking's Universe,' Hawking became deeply depressed. But as it became apparent that he was not going to die soon, his spirits recovered and he bore down on his work.

Brian Dickie, director of research at the Motor Neurone Disease Association, said only 5 percent of those diagnosed with ALS survive for 10 years or longer. Hawking, he added, 'really is at the extreme end of the scale when it comes to survival.'

Hawking married Jane Wilde in 1965 and they had three children, Robert, Lucy and Timothy.

Jane cared for Hawking for 20 years, until a grant from the United States paid for the 24-hour care he required.

He was inducted into the Royal Society in 1974 and received the Albert Einstein Award in 1978. In 1989, Queen Elizabeth II made him a Companion of Honor, one of the highest distinctions she can bestow.

He whizzed about Cambridge at surprising speed usually with nurses or teaching assistants in his wake traveled and lectured widely, and appeared to enjoy his fame.

He then retired from his chair as Lucasian Professor in 2009 and took up a research position with the Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics in Waterloo, Ontario.

Hawking divorced Jane in 1991, an acrimonious split that strained his relationship with their children.

Writing in her autobiographical 'Music to Move the Stars,' she said the strain of caring for Hawking for nearly three decades had left her feeling like 'a brittle, empty shell.'

Hawking married his one-time nurse Elaine Mason four years later, but the relationship was dogged by rumors of abuse.

Police investigated in 2004 after newspapers reported that he'd been beaten, suffering injuries including a broken wrist, gashes to the face and a cut lip, and was left stranded in his garden on the hottest day of the year.

Hawking called the charges 'completely false.' Police found no evidence of any abuse. Hawking and Mason separated in 2006.

Lucy Hawking said her father had an exasperating 'inability to accept that there is anything he cannot do.'

'I accept that there are some things I can't do,' he told The Associated Press in 1997. 'But they are mostly things I don't particularly want to do anyway.'

Then, grinning widely, he added, 'I seem to manage to do anything that I really want.'

Following news of Hawking's passing University of Cambridge vice-chancellor Professor Stephen Toope released a condolence statement.

'Professor Hawking was a unique individual who will be remembered with warmth and affection not only in Cambridge but all over the world,' Toope said.

'His exceptional contributions to scientific knowledge and the popularisation of science and mathematics have left an indelible legacy. His character was an inspiration to millions.'


PHOTOS






Stephen Hawking (left) is pictured as a child with his sisters Mary and Phillipa





Astrophysicist Hawking floats on a zero-gravity jet in April 2007. The modified jet carrying Hawking, physicians and nurses, and dozens of others first flew up to 24,000 feet over the Atlantic Ocean off Florida






U.S. President Barack Obama (R) presents the Medal of Freedom to physicist Hawking during a ceremony in the East Room of the White House August 12, 2009 in Washington, DC





In this file photo taken on May 14, 2008, South Africa former President Nelson Mandela (R) meets with British scientist Professor Hawking (L) in Johannesburg





The Queen meets Stephen Hawking during a reception for Leonard Cheshire Disability charity at St James's Palace in London in 2014





Pope Francis meets the eminent physicist at the Vatican on November 28, 2016...

END..


Respects & RIP Stephen > Another Genius... BUT Will Be Only be Renowned as 1....Many Years in the Future...





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