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Old 02-04-14, 19:21   #1
 
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Oh Crap! Millions Unable to Breathe-Giant Cloud of Toxic Air/Sand Covers UK

Millions of Asthmatics Unable to Breathe as Giant Cloud of Saharan Sand and Toxic Air Covers Britain in Layer of Smog

  • Air pollution set to hit 10/10 due to dust from Sahara mixing with local pollution and toxic air from Europe
  • Parts of the South Coast, West Country, Midlands and South Wales are worst affected by the problem
  • Dust has been generated from two source areas - one in central Algeria and another in southern Morocco
  • Meteorologists say it's 'particularly bad with weather conditions creating "perfect storm" for air pollution'
  • Those in affected areas advised to reduce strenuous outdoor exercise, especially if they get a sore throat
  • Adults and children with lung problems, heart problems and pensioners should avoid vigorous activity
  • Asthma sufferers may have to use inhalers more frequently for a few days until levels drop on Friday
  • But the dust does have positive aspects for fish in the Atlantic Ocean and the Brazilian rainforest
Daily Mail UK, 2 April 2014


Millions of asthmatics were today having trouble breathing as a potentially-lethal cloud of Saharan sand, toxic air and local pollution sat over Britain.
One sufferer said she felt like she had 'a baby elephant sitting on my chest’, while another said her lungs felt like they had ‘cobwebs’ inside them.
Even those without health difficulties have been told by experts to reduce outdoor exercise, with air pollution set to hit 10 out of 10 in some areas.
Britons are being warned they may suffer breathing problems, with parts of the South Coast, West Country, Midlands and South Wales worst affected.
Those in affected areas are advised to reduce the strenuous outdoor exercise they do, especially if they start to suffer from a cough or sore throat.

Scroll Down for Video



Protection:
A cyclist uses a pollution mask in Great Yarmouth, Norfolk,
as a potentially-lethal cloud of Saharan sand, toxic air and local pollution sits over Britain






Not a good day for seeing far:
A misty bird's eye view of London from the Shard building near London Bridge



Winding river:
Air pollution in London this morning as the Government warns people with breathing problems to stay indoors




Distant:
The Millennium Dome is shrouded in smog in London, as seen from a viewing gallery in the Orbit sculpture during a tour organised for the media






Defra, the environment department, reported reported rural areas of south-east England as having 'high' levels of pollution as of 3pm today.

Forecasters say pollution levels could reach much higher levels later today, with Defra predicting continuing high levels tomorrow.
Adults and children with lung problems, heart problems and pensioners should avoid vigorous activity today and tomorrow, according to doctors.
And asthmatics are being warned that they could suffer flare-ups, with experts saying they might need to use inhalers more frequently for a few days.

Asthma UK chief executive Kay Boycott issued a warning today many of the 5.4million people who suffer from the breathing condition in Britain.

She said: 'The two thirds of people with asthma who find that air pollution makes their asthma worse will be at an increased risk of an attack.'

Author Emma Cannon, of London, said on Twitter: 'Went for a run yesterday on Embankment - air pollution, sore throat and asthma in bed last night.'

Jenny Henderson added: 'I now know why I feel like I have a baby elephant sitting on my chest this morning… pollution levels... asthma... deep joy - not!'






Protected:
Two people wearing anti-pollution masks ride bicycles at Hyde Park Corner in Central London






Tricky visibility:
A building crane rises amidst the haze from the effect of high air pollution in London today








Human impact:
A cyclist in Cambridge wears a dust mask while a man looks at a thick cover of smog over South Harting in West Sussex





Poor visibility:
Smog covers Canary Wharf in London's Financial district in East London today, as a high level of Air Pollution hits the UK




On the beach:
Smog hits Great Yarmouth in Norfolk. People have been told to cut down outside activities and stay in doors if they have respiratory problems






Fog on the Tyne:
People walk through smog to cross the Tyne Bridge in Newcastle upon Tyne





West Midlands:
Dust particles and pollution from cars hang over Birmingham as people suffer the effects of high levels of pollution



And writer Lucinda Hawksley said: 'The elements are conspiring - Sahara dust is giving me asthma and a breeze just gave me a Marilyn Monroe moment'.



HOW THE DUST FROM AFRICA HELPS THE AMAZON RAINFOREST

The dust is lifted up from the Sahara Desert several times a year - and this does have various positive environmental aspects.

Without the dust, the Atlantic would not get fertilised, fish would not live in large parts of the Ocean, and the Amazon rainforest would run out of nutrients. Dust from the Sahara provides essential fertilizer for plants in Brazil.

Large amounts of plant nutrients were found in atmospheric mineral dust blowing over to the Amazon across the Atlantic, a 2010 report in Geophysical Research Letters revealed.

The dust from the Bodélé Depression basin - the site of a once-huge lake in Chad – contains massive amounts of the key plant nutrients iron and phosphorus.
The dust, which an article in the Nature journal said is ‘essentially lakebed sediment originating from the shells of freshwater diatoms’, could help compensate for poor rainforest soils in the Amazon.
The route taken by the dust depends on the season – with it passing by the Caribbean in the summer, but going further south to the Amazon in the winter.

In many other parts of the country, levels could still be high enough to cause problems even among healthy people.
Dr Paul Cosford, the medical director for Public Health England, told BBC Radio 4’s Today programme:

'Clearly this is a serious issue.
‘We are having a small number of days where we have very high air pollution levels. For the vast majority of people it will cause no harm.
'But it might cause sore eyes and a sore throat. For people carrying out physical activity, it might be sensible to reduce this.
'People who have lung or heart disease or asthma in the affected areas may also want to reduce any strenuous activity.’

The Saharan sand that has been raining down over the country in the past few days has been leaving distinctive red dust on cars and skylights.
Sometimes known as ‘blood rain’, it occurs when strong winds in North Africa sweep up desert sand.
The particles stay in the clouds before being deposited during showers – and if the winds are blowing in the right direction, the UK can receive them.
Light winds here are stopping this, and other pollution that is blowing over from mainland Europe, from dispersing.

The dust is lifted up from the Sahara several times a year - and this does have various positive environmental aspects, reported BBC Radio 4.
Without the dust, the Atlantic would not get fertilised, fish would not live in large parts of the Ocean, and the Brazilian rainforest would run out of nutrients.
The air pollution index for a region is determined by the concentration of five pollutants - including nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide and ozone.

Frank Kelly, professor of environmental health at King's College London, said:

‘Whether home-produced or arriving from the continent, the tiny particles we take into our bodies with each breath cause immediate problems for some individuals such as those with asthma and contribute to longer term problems for most of us in the form of heart disease and stroke.





Hard to see:
Wimbledon and south-west London as high air pollution which is a mix of local and European emissions and dust from the Sahara is set to spread





Eerie:
A view across Gateshead in the North East, where fog descended over the skyline today and some people were warned to stay indoors






Not much to see:
Tourists and locals at the top of Primrose Hill in North London struggling to view the famous panorama because of smog and air pollution






Journey:
The dust has been blown across from the Sahara over mainland Europe and into Britain





Over the river:
Dust particles and pollution from cars hangs over London, seen from Greenwich, as people suffer the effects of high levels of pollution





Graphic:
Air pollution is set to hit 10 out of 10 in some areas due to dust
blown up from the Sahara mixing with local pollution and toxic air from Europe






Moving:
The dust, shown in pink within the red circle, is carried within clouds, shown in red, to the UK, where it falls within rain showers



‘For those who are sensitive to air pollution, it's important they are provided with accurate forecasts of when air quality will deteriorate so they can plan their activities to reduce exposure, perhaps by taking different routes to work or school or avoiding strenuous exercise on those days.



WHY IS POLLUTION SO DANGEROUS FOR ASTHMA SUFFERERS?

Angela Jones, asthma nurse specialist at Asthma UK, spoke today about the problems the pollution can cause asthma sufferers.

She told MailOnline: ‘When you have asthma, it's an inflammatory condition of the lungs - they become red, swollen and sore inside.

‘If you breathe in particles, they can irritate the already swollen lungs. Alternatively, this could actually cause the start of the flare up.

‘We know that pollution is a cause of asthma. There aren't many things we say can cause asthma. That and cigarette smoking.

‘People have got different levels of sensitivity in their lungs, so I think for people whose lungs are sensitive, the pollution may be an issue.

‘There are more people who are at risk of asthma through a family history or their own personal medical history, having eczema or hayfever.

'People should have an asthma action plan, a written plan of what to do when their asthma gets worse, which can be downloaded from our website.’

‘Even those who do not feel any particular sensitivity to air pollution can benefit from such avoidance techniques but they will have to wait several decades to see the benefit.’

Dr Helen Dacre, a meteorologist at the University of Reading, said: ‘High air pollution levels can cause unpleasant and dangerous effects on health, both long and short term.

‘Toxic gases, such as nitrogen dioxide and ozone, as well as fine dust particles in the air blown in from the Sahara and from burning fossil fuels, all contribute to cause problems for people with heart, lung and breathing problems, such as asthma.

‘The problem is likely to be particularly bad today because weather conditions have conspired to create a “perfect storm” for air pollution.

‘British car drivers and heavy industry create bad enough smog on their own, but the weather is also importing pollution from the industrialised urban parts of Europe, which is blowing across Britain.

‘Saharan dust gets blown over to Britain several times a year - the current episode has been whipped up by a large wind storm in North Africa.

'This has all combined to create high concentrations of pollutants in the air.’
Experts say the high pollution levels in Britain today are still nowhere near what cities such as Beijing experience more regularly.


But Dr Keith Prowse, honorary medical adviser to the British Lung Foundation, said: ‘Heavy air pollution of the kind we're seeing in several places across the UK at the moment can have a significant impact on people with pre-existing respiratory conditions such as COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) and asthma, worsening symptoms such as coughing and breathlessness.
‘When levels of air pollution are high, people with these conditions, or anyone else who finds themselves coughing or wheezing in times of high pollution, should avoid strenuous exercise outdoors and are better off trying to exercise away from pollution hotspots, such as busy roads or during rush hour.
‘People who use a reliever inhaler should make sure that they carry it with them. If they feel that their conditions are worsening then they should contact their GPs.’

Steve Nash, 43, of Highworth, Wiltshire, was one of many drivers in the UK shocked when they found the residue on their vehicles. He said: ‘I'm quite interested in weather and I follow it all the time, but I have never seen anything like this before.


Storm in Sahara carries dust over 2,000 MILES to the UK








In need of a wash:
Cars in Wimbledon are covered in dust and sand after powerful dust storms in the Sahara arrived via rain in Britain





In the Midlands:
Smog in Wolverhampton city centre. A health alert was issued today as air pollution was expected to rise to dangerous levels





Looking at the sights:
Tourists are backdropped by the Houses of Parliament in Central London






Misty:
A view of Cambridge from Castle Hill showing the haze which is covering much of the East of England









Carrying on:
Tamar Johnson attempts to rid her car of the dust that has spread to Birmingham. A general view of the City of London is seen through smog






Going for a jog:
A foggy start for commuters in Harrogate, North Yorkshire, on The Stray this morning





Shrouded:
A general view through smog of the Canary Wharf financial district in East London



'Most of the cars in the street are also covered in the thin layer of sand. It's amazing when you think about how far it has come.’
Met Office forecaster Emma Sharples said: ‘This does happen - it has happened before.



HOW THE DUST STORM HAPPENS

A 'coincidence of climatic and meteorological influences', according to experts, has led to Saharan sand being whirled high into the sky and whisked across Africa and mainland Europe before coming down.
A sandstorm over Algeria last week saw sand launched high into the atmosphere.

The Sahara is one of the largest deserts in the world and is often battered by strong winds.
With the wind currently arriving here from the South/South-East, the conditions were in place to carry that sand over Cornwall. Then, light persistent rain brought it down to earth.
When that rain dried, it left the sand as a visible residue on cars across Cornwall, London, western Wales and Ireland.

The dust is lifted up and transported long distances from the Sahara several times a year, particularly in the summer, according to forecasters.

'But you need the combination of elements - the sandstorm in the Saharan region, the wind from the South/South-East, and the right sort of rain.
‘You need a light rain, not too much - just enough to bring it down and then when it dries out it leaves that residue on cars.
'It's probably because the rain is not that heavy that it does not get brought down and washed off straight away. Of course it isn't dangerous.
‘The most it's going to be is an inconvenience to people who have it on their clean cars.’
A spokesman for Defra (Department for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs), which has revamped its pollution forecasting service, said: ‘The high level of air pollution this week is due to a combination of local emissions, light winds, pollution from the continent and dust blown over from the Sahara.’
High levels of pollution are expected to continue across East Anglia and the Midlands tomorrow, before the air clears on Friday.

Dr Steven Godby, a drylands expert at Nottingham Trent University, said: ‘The Sahara is the largest desert in the world and contains a number of significant dust source areas.
‘Looking at satellite images captured last Thursday and Friday it seems the dust was generated from two source areas, one in central Algeria close to Tamanrasset and another in southern Morocco to the south of the Atlas Mountains.
‘To generate dust storms large numbers of silt-sized particles are needed for the wind to pick up and transport and these two areas have been identified as dust “hot spots” in the past.
‘Dust storms are the centre of international research efforts at the moment as it plays an important role in the planetary radiation budget and the impact of dust needs to be included in the numerical models used to diagnose and predict the climate system.’
There is however some good news on the horizon. The Met Office says today could be the hottest day of the year so far, with temperatures in the London and East Anglia beating the high of 20.9C (69.6F) seen on Sunday.




Forecast:
Tomorrow is expected to bring rain and thundery showers, with the north experiencing the worst of the wet weather. Friday will be drier but slightly cooler





Preparing:
Smog is seen as the Oxford University rowing crew train on the River Thames in London. The 160th Boat Race takes place on Sunday






Shrouded in sea fog and low cloud: Teesmouth National Nature Reserve at Seal Sands near Hartlepool, County Durham




Poor view:
A thick cover of smog spreads over South Harting, West Sussex, as the Government warns people with breathing problems to stay inside





The Walkie Talkie building:
Air pollution in London this morning as the Government warns people with breathing problems to stay indoors



Tomorrow is expected to bring rain and thundery showers, with the north experiencing the worst of the wet weather.
Friday will be drier but slightly cooler due to cloud cover. The good weather is expected to last into the weekend, with Saturday the nicer of the two days.

Last week MailOnline reported how air pollution killed around 7million people in 2012, making it the world's single biggest environmental health risk.
The World Health Organisation figures showed that one in eight of all global deaths two years ago were linked to polluted air.



DEFRA'S POLLUTION FORECAST IN FULL FOR TODAY AND TOMORROW

TODAY

For England and Wales, moderate to high air pollution levels are forecast for central and southeast England, to the south and east of a line from around The Wash to Cheshire to east Devon, with local very high levels expected in parts of East Anglia and the East Midlands.

This is due to light easterly winds continuing to bring in pollutants and allow local pollutants to remain close to source. There may also be some component due to Saharan dust.

Across the south and east of Wales and along the north coast of Wales, around Wirral and Merseyside, as well as the rest of Devon, mainly moderate pollution levels are forecast.

For the rest of northern England, Cornwall, and the northwest of Wales, levels are expected to be low either due to showers or a fresher breeze.

Local moderate levels are forecast over the north of Scotland, and also some parts of the south of Scotland, especially urban areas. Otherwise, for Northern Ireland and for the remainder of Scotland, levels are forecast to be low.

TOMORROW

High levels of air pollution are forecast for East Anglia, the Midlands, including Lincolnshire, easternmost parts of Wales, through Wirral and the north coast of Wales, then north over much of coastal northwest England, to southwest Scotland and the northeast of Northern Ireland.

Moderate pollution is forecast many other parts of England and Wales, except most of northeastern England, southwestern Wales, the south of England south of the London to Bristol line, except southwest counties and Kent where levels are expected to be low.

For southwest Wales and southernmost counties of England, the improvement is due to winds veering to a south to southwest direction after rain, bringing cleaner air from the Atlantic, although southwest England is expected to have local moderate levels due to increase in ozone.

OUTLOOK

On Friday, most of the UK is expected to Low levels of pollution in cleaner south-westerly winds, although local Moderate levels are forecast for some areas, especially southwest England, Kent, North Yorkshire and parts of southern Scotland due to ozone. Mostly Low levels are forecast across the UK through the weekend.


What has caused the high pollution in UK and why is it dangerous?

Parts of England should be braced for the highest possible levels of air pollution, environment officials have said. Here are some questions answered about the current pollution levels:

  • Why are the pollution levels so high?
The current high levels of air pollution have been caused by a combination of factors; the continental air flow, air pollutants from the UK, a south easterly breeze bringing in pollutants from the continent and dust that has travelled thousands of miles from the Sahara Desert.
Dr Helen Dacre, a meteorologist at the University of Reading, said the combination of factors have led to a ‘perfect storm’ for air pollution. ‘British car drivers and heavy industry create bad enough smog on their own, but the weather is also importing pollution from the industrialised urban parts of Europe, which is blowing across Britain,’ she said. ‘Saharan dust gets blown over to Britain several times a year - the current episode has been whipped up by a large wind storm in North Africa. This has all combined to create high concentrations of pollutants in the air.’
  • How does dust from the Saharan Desert end up in Britain?
The Met Office said Saharan dust is lifted by strong winds and can reach very high altitudes. From there it can be taken to anywhere in the world by gusts of wind. The airborne particles are deposited during rain showers. Paul Hutcheon at the Met Office said: ‘We usually see this happen several times a year when big dust storms in the Sahara coincide with southerly winds to bring that dust here. More dust rain is possible during showers expected later this week.’




Clock watching: The Elizabeth Tower, also known as Big Ben, is seen in London.
The Met Office had forecast that the UK would be affected by smog this week






London smog:
Two apprentices, centre and right, who work on the Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park, take a picture at a viewing gallery in the Orbit sculpture








Financial district:
Dust particles and pollution from cars hang over London, seen from Greenwich in the south-east of the capital



  • Which areas are worst affected?
The Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) ranks air pollution from one to 10, with one being the lowest and 10 the highest, at present most of East Anglia can expect the highest level of air pollution recorded. Meanwhile swathes of southern and central England should be braced for moderate to high levels of pollution, forecasters said.

  • What are the implications to people's health?
Around the globe seven million people died in 2012 as a result of air pollution, according to estimations from the World Health Organisation (WHO). The body said that air pollution is ‘the world's largest single environmental health risk’.
WHO said there is a link between air pollution and heart disease, respiratory problems and cancer.
When pollution levels are deemed to be ‘very high’, people in Britain are encouraged to reduce physical activity, particularly outdoor activity. Older people and those with lung or heart problems are urged to avoid strenuous physical activity. Meanwhile people with asthma may need to use their inhalers more frequently. When pollution levels are classed as ‘high’ people who experience sore eyes, coughs or sore throats are urged to consider reducing activity, particularly outdoors. People with health problems are urged to reduce physical activity.





Sand from Africa:
Dust from the Sahara desert is being deposited on cars in Canterbury, Kent, with pollution level on the rise








On social media:
Sahara sand pictures posted on Instagram by @sallywilson and @MPOPS82






'Blood Rain':
These dust marks seen on cars in the capital has been caused by rain containing dust from the Sahara









Out of Africa:
Andy Gunton's car in Hastings, Sussex, and Steve Nash's vehicle in Highworth, Wiltshire, were covered in Sahara dust on Monday



  • What can be done?
Green campaigners at Friends of the Earth said that while we can't do anything about the dust from the Sahara, officials should be doing ‘far more’ to deal with road traffic emissions. Campaigner Jenny Bates said: ‘We need cleaner vehicles, a serious strategy for tackling traffic levels, including the provision of better public transport and cycling facilities, and an end to plans to build new roads.’

  • When will it improve?
The current situation is expected to improve by Friday when most of the UK can expect low levels of air pollution because of cleaner south-westerly winds, Defra said.


Met Office forecasts it will now get the weather 80% right! Breakthrough in long-term predictions could boost economy;
  • Scientists developed new model to forecast weather months in advance
  • It comes after Met Office was criticised for 'pitiful' forecasts last winter
  • Model had 62% accuracy on historic data which could rise to 80% in future
By Jim Norton

British scientists have developed a forecast model that they claim will be able to predict extreme winter weather with up to 80 per cent accuracy.
If accurate, it could strongly influence the economy, with advanced warnings giving airports, councils, insurers and hospitals more information with which to prepare.
The breakthrough comes after the Met Office was criticised for its ‘pitiful’ forecasts last winter – thought to be the worst predictions since Michael Fish’s infamous reassurance that there was no hurricane on the way in October 1987.





Stuff of legend:
Michael Fish famously failed to predict the 1987 hurricane - but he relied on others' data



Last November, the Met Office told councils to expect ‘drier than usual’ conditions – only for the UK to suffer the wettest winter since records began.
Until now, even powerful super-computers have been able to perform only slightly better than chance when predicting long-term weather conditions

But the latest model, which simulates the climate on a more detailed scale, was found to be 62 per cent accurate at broad predictions of weather conditions when it was tested on 20 years of retrospective data.

And scientists at the Met Office claim the reliability will improve, estimating that accuracy will increase to 80 per cent.
The breakthrough is due to stronger computing power, allowing scientists to take into account much smaller changes in the gulfstream and Arctic sea ice coverage, which impact on the British climate.

The Met Office’s Adam Scaife said: ‘This will have enormous benefits for the economy and society, and mean that planners can prepare well ahead for winter.’




Dramatic:
A stormy winter this year followed wrongly-placed reassurances from the Met Office


Airports and councils would have a better idea how much grit would be needed, while power companies and wind farms would be able to anticipate energy demands, and hospitals could prepare for increases of accidents caused by the ice and snow.
And after the wettest winter on record, insurers would be able to estimate the potential risks of winter storms.
It is also a huge boon for the Met Office, which has been highly embarrassed in the past by its seasonal predictions.
In 2009, it forecast a ‘barbecue summer’, which proved to be a washout. And last November, a three-month forecast by the Met Office suggested only the East and South East might expect average rainfall.

The forecasters told councils there would be a ‘significant reduction in precipitation compared to average’ for most of the country. Instead, local authorities saw some of the most severe flooding in decades.

Professor Scaife said: ‘If used carefully there’s a good chance of winning, but no guarantee.
‘It’s not possible to predict the outcome every year but we’re doing it with increasing skill.’


Storm in Sahara Carries Dust over 2,000 MILES to the UK




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